It has long been known that trypanosomes regulate mitochondrial biogenesis during the life cycle of the parasite; however, the mitochondrial protein inventory (MitoCarta) and its regulation remain unknown. We present a novel computational method for genome-wide prediction of mitochondrial proteins using a support vector machine-based classifier with ∼90 prediction accuracy. Using this method, we predicted the mitochondrial localization of 468 proteins with high confidence and have experimentally verified the localization of a subset of these proteins. We then applied a recently developed parallel sequencing technology to determine the expression profiles and the splicing patterns of a total of 1065 predicted MitoCarta transcripts during the development of the parasite, and showed that 435 of the transcripts significantly changed their expressions while 630 remain unchanged in any of the three life stages analyzed. Furthermore, we identified 298 alternatively splicing events, a small subset of which could lead to dual localization of the corresponding proteins.
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