The unrecognized burden of typhoid fever

Stephen K. Obaro, Pui Ying Iroh Tam, Eric Daniel Mintz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Introduction: Typhoid fever (TF), caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is the most common cause of enteric fever, responsible for an estimated 129,000 deaths and more than 11 million cases annually. Although several reviews have provided global and regional TF disease burden estimates, major gaps in our understanding of TF epidemiology remain. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the gaps in current estimates of TF disease burden and offer suggestions for addressing them, so that affected communities can receive the full potential of disease prevention offered by vaccination and water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions. Expert commentary: Current disease burden estimates for TF do not capture cases from certain host populations, nor those with atypical presentations of TF, which may lead to substantial underestimation of TF cases and deaths. These knowledge gaps pose major obstacles to the informed use of current and new generation typhoid vaccines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)249-260
Number of pages12
JournalExpert Review of Vaccines
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 4 2017


  • Typhoid
  • disease ascertainment
  • disease burden
  • enteric fever
  • vaccination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery


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