Theoretical and Experimental Overview of Structural, Dielectric, Crystallographic, Electronic, Optical, and Physical Tensors of α-DIPAB and Iodine-Doped α-DIPAB Molecular Ferroelectric Crystals

A. M. Alsaad, I. A. Qattan, A. A. Ahmad, Qais M. Al-Bataineh, Hala I. Al-Abed, Zaid Albataineh, Ahmad Telfah, R. F. Sabirianov

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Self-consistent ab initio calculations of the structural, crystallographic, electronic, optical, and physical properties as well as spontaneous polarization of P21 (α)-ferroelectric phase of diisopropylammonium bromide (α-DIPAB) molecular crystal are carried out. Examination of the total density of states as obtained using the generalized gradient approximation and hybrid exchange–correlation functional (HSE06) methods yields an optical bandgap of ∼ 5 eV and 6 eV, respectively. Furthermore, by using the Berry phase approach, we found that polar DIPAB exhibits a spontaneous polarization of 22.64 μC/cm2, indicating that this remarkable ferroelectric molecule could be used as an alternative to replace several known ferroelectrics for piezoelectric and optoelectronic applications such as capacitors, sensors, and data storage as well as microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices. Using the vdW + DF2 approximation, we identify the majority of the vibrational modes in the Raman spectra and analyze the modes generated by the bromine (Br) deficiency. We find that the Br deficiency strongly affects the electric and elastic properties of α-DIPAB. Furthermore, the elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric tensors of α-DIPAB are calculated and interpreted. α-DIPAB is found to exhibit a static dielectric tensor of ∼ 2.5, i.e., slightly smaller than that of typical perovskite-based ferroelectrics. In addition, the clamped-ion piezoelectric tensor is calculated. We found that the piezoelectric coefficient e21 corresponding to applying uniaxial strain in the direction perpendicular to the N–C bonds is smaller than the e22 principle coefficient. Moreover, the components e15 = 0.220 C/m2 and e35 = −0.2032 C/m2 correspond to applying shear strain η31, indicating a reasonable piezoelectric response of this polar crystal and making it a cheap attractive candidate for piezoelectric applications. The components of the elastic moduli tensor are calculated and interpreted. The α-DIPAB exhibits Young’s modulus of up to 50 GPa along specific crystalline directions despite its relatively low hardness. We attribute such a large value to the presence of a dense H–Br bond network between the Br and DIPAB molecule. The Poisson ratio is also strongly anisotropic, with values ranging from 0.5 to 0.2. The DIPAB systems are brittle based on the ratio between the bulk and shear elastic constants, suggesting that this material has potential for use in flexible electronic applications. A real-part dielectric anomaly at T = 140 K induced by iodine doping of α-DIPAB exhibits switchable behavior. This abnormality can be attributed to suppression of ferroelectricity induced by trapping of vortices at dislocation defects generated by iodine. Another dielectric anomaly found in the vicinity of the Curie temperature of α-DIPAB can be explained in terms of a structural phase-induced ferroelectric-to-paraelectric transition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7112-7132
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2020


  • Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP)
  • elastic and dielectric properties
  • iodine-doped α-DIPAB
  • molecular ferroelectrics
  • optical bandgap energy
  • piezoelectric and dielectric tensors
  • α-Diisopropylammonium bromide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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