We discuss the operation of porous silicon light-emitting diodes prepared as heterojunctions between n-type In2O3:Sn (ITO) and p-type silicon nanostructures, exhibiting quantum confinement effects. The transparent ITO affords light emission through the top surface of the device, as well as providing passivation and hence long term stability. We describe a model for the injection of minority carrier electrons into the porous silicon regions, which results in the emission of yellow-orange DC electroluminescence. A detailed study of the forward bias current-voltage characteristics of the devices will be given, which allows calculations of the densities of interface states. A tendency to pin the hole Fermi energy near the neutral level, φ0, is shown to control the extraction of majority carriers. Methods for improving LED efficiency by alleviating a parasitic shunt current path through interface states will be addressed.