Three-dimensional indoor localisation system using radio frequency identification tags

Jiaqing Wu, Robert E. Williams, Lance C. Pérez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an information exchange technology based on radio wave communication. It is also a possible solution to indoor localisation. Owing to multipath propagation and anisotropic interference in the indoor environment, theoretical propagation models are generally not sufficient for RFID-based localisation. In fact, the received radio frequency signal distribution may not even be monotonic and this makes range-based localisation algorithms less accurate. On the other hand, range-free localisation algorithms, such as k Nearest-Neighbour (kNN), require reference tags to be spread throughout the whole three-dimensional (3D) space which is frequently not practical. In this work, a hybrid real-time localisation algorithm that combines reference tags with Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) ranging is introduced to improve RFID-based 3D localisation in indoor environments. The localisation algorithm is implemented in MATLAB and is synchronised with radio signal data in real-time. Results show that the proposed hybrid algorithm achieves an average 3D localisation error of 1.08 m which represents a significant improvement over algorithms that use only kNN or RSSI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)309-324
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Radio Frequency Identification Technology and Applications
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2015


  • 3D
  • Error prediction
  • Localisation
  • RFID
  • Radio Frequency Identification
  • Three dimension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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