Three-dimensional printing and deformation behavior of low-density target structures by two-photon polymerization

Ying Liu, Ori Stein, John H. Campbell, Lijia Jiang, Nicole Petta, Yongfeng Lu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

13 Scopus citations


Two-photon polymerization (2PP), a 3D nano to microscale additive manufacturing process, is being used for the first time to fabricate small custom experimental packages ("targets") to support laser-driven high-energy-density (HED) physics research. Of particular interest is the use of 2PP to deterministically print low-density, low atomic-number (CHO) polymer matrices ("foams") at millimeter scale with sub-micrometer resolution. Deformation during development and drying of the foam structures remains a challenge when using certain commercial photo-resins; here we compare use of acrylic resins IP-S and IP-Dip. The mechanical strength of polymeric beam and foam structures is examined particularly the degree of deformation that occurs during the development and drying processes. The magnitude of the shrinkage in the two resins in quantified by printing sample structures and by use of FEA to simulate the deformation. Capillary drying forces are shown to be small and likely below the elastic limit of the core foam structure. In contrast the substantial shrinkage in IP-Dip (∼5-10%) cause large shear stresses and associated plastic deformation particularly near constrained boundaries such as the substrate and locations with sharp density variation. The inherent weakness of stitching boundaries is also evident and in certain cases can lead to delamination. Use of IP-S shows marked reduction in deformation with a minor loss of print resolution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationNanoengineering
Subtitle of host publicationFabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices XIV
EditorsEva M. Campo, Louay A. Eldada, Elizabeth A. Dobisz
ISBN (Electronic)9781510611658
StatePublished - 2017
EventNanoengineering: Fabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices XIV 2017 - San Diego, United States
Duration: Aug 9 2017Aug 10 2017

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


OtherNanoengineering: Fabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices XIV 2017
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego


  • 2-photon polymerization
  • Laser targets
  • Low-density structures
  • Structure deformation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Three-dimensional printing and deformation behavior of low-density target structures by two-photon polymerization'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this