Tobacco smoke exposure and impact of smoking legislation on rural and non-rural hospitality venues in North Dakota

Kelly Buettner-Schmidt, Marie L. Lobo, Mark J. Travers, Blake Boursaw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


The purpose of this cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 135 bars and restaurants in North Dakota was to describe factors that influenced tobacco smoke pollution levels in the venues; to compare the quantity of tobacco smoke pollution by rurality and by presence of local ordinances; and to assess compliance with state and local laws. In data collection in 2012, we measured the indoor air quality indicator of particulate matter (2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter or smaller), calculated average smoking density and occupant density, and determined compliance with state and local smoking ordinances using observational methods. As rurality increased, tobacco smoke pollution in bars increased. A significant association was found between stringency of local laws and level of tobacco smoke pollution, but the strength of the association varied by venue type. Compliance was significantly lower in venues in communities without local ordinances. Controlling for venue type, 69.2% of smoke-free policy's impact on tobacco smoke pollution levels was mediated by observed smoking. This study advances scientific knowledge on the factors influencing tobacco smoke pollution and informs public health advocates and decision makers on policy needs, especially in rural areas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)268-277
Number of pages10
JournalResearch in Nursing and Health
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Epidemiology
  • Health policy
  • Indoor air pollution
  • Passive smoking
  • Public health
  • Secondary smoke
  • Smoking
  • Tobacco control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing


Dive into the research topics of 'Tobacco smoke exposure and impact of smoking legislation on rural and non-rural hospitality venues in North Dakota'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this