Transport of dietary anti-inflammatory peptide, γ-glutamyl valine (γ-ev), across the intestinal caco-2 monolayer

Snigdha Guha, Sophie Alvarez, Kaustav Majumder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


The present study analyzed the transepithelial transport of the dietary anti-inflammatory peptide, γ-glutamyl valine (γ-EV). γ-EV is naturally found in dry edible beans. Our previous study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory potency of γ-EV against vascular inflammation at a concentration of 1mM, and that it can transport with the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of 1.56 × 10−6 ± 0.7 × 10−6 cm/s across the intestinal Caco-2 cells. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether the permeability of the peptide could be enhanced and to elucidate the mechanism of transport of γ-EV across Caco-2 cells. The initial results indicated that γ-EV was nontoxic to the Caco-2 cells up to 5 mM concentration and could be transported across the intestinal cells intact. During apical-to-basolateral transport, a higher peptide dose (5 mM) significantly (p < 0.01) enhanced the transport rate to 2.5 × 10−6 ± 0.6 × 10−6 cm/s. Cytochalasin-D disintegrated the tight-junction proteins of the Caco-2 monolayer and increased the Papp of γ-EV to 4.36 × 10−6 ± 0.16 × 10−6 cm/s (p < 0.001), while theaflavin 3-gallate and Gly-Sar significantly decreased the Papp (p < 0.05), with wortmannin having no effects on the peptide transport, indicating that the transport route of γ-EV could be via both PepT1-mediated and paracellular.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1448
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2021


  • Bioactive peptides
  • Intestinal Caco-2 cells
  • P
  • Peptide absorption
  • Peptide transport mechanism
  • γ-glutamyl peptides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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