Treatment of Bilateral Refractive Amblyopia in Children Three to Less Than 10 Years of Age

David K. Wallace, Danielle L. Chandler, Roy W. Beck, Robert W. Arnold, Darron A. Bacal, Eileen E. Birch, Joost Felius, Marcela Frazier, Jonathan M. Holmes, Darren Hoover, Deborah A. Klimek, Ingryd Lorenzana, Graham E. Quinn, Michael X. Repka, Donny W. Suh, Susanna Tamkins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

88 Scopus citations


Purpose: To determine the amount and time course of binocular visual acuity improvement during treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia in children three to less than 10 years of age. Design: Prospective, multicenter, noncomparative intervention. Methods: One hundred and thirteen children (mean age, 5.1 years) with previously untreated bilateral refractive amblyopia were enrolled at 27 community- and university-based sites and were provided with optimal spectacle correction. Bilateral refractive amblyopia was defined as 20/40 to 20/400 best-corrected binocular visual acuity in the presence of 4.00 diopters (D) or more of hypermetropia by spherical equivalent, 2.00 D or more of astigmatism, or both in each eye. Best-corrected binocular and monocular visual acuities were measured at baseline and at five, 13, 26, and 52 weeks. The primary study outcome was binocular acuity at one year. Results: Mean binocular visual acuity improved from 0.50 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units (20/63) at baseline to 0.11 logMAR units (20/25) at one year (mean improvement, 3.9 lines; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5 to 4.2). Mean improvement at one year for the 84 children with baseline binocular acuity of 20/40 to 20/80 was 3.4 lines (95% CI, 3.2 to 3.7) and for the 16 children with baseline binocular acuity of 20/100 to 20/320 was 6.3 lines (95% CI, 5.1 to 7.5). The cumulative probability of binocular visual acuity of 20/25 or better was 21% at five weeks, 46% at 13 weeks, 59% at 26 weeks, and 74% at 52 weeks. Conclusions: Treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia with spectacle correction improves binocular visual acuity in children three to less than 10 years of age, with most improving to 20/25 or better within one year.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)487-496
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican journal of ophthalmology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2007
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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