Trends in Cardiogenic Shock-Related Mortality in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction in the United States, 1999 to 2019

Marco Zuin, Duane S. Pinto, Thach Nguyen, Yiannis S. Chatzizisis, Giampaolo Pasquetto, Ramesh Daggubati, Claudio Bilato, Gianluca Rigatelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Data on mortality trends in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with cardiogenic shock (CS) are scant. This study aimed to assess the trends in CS-AMI-related mortality in United States (US) subjects over the latest 21 years. Mortality data of US subjects with AMI listed as the underlying cause of death and CS as contributing cause were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WONDER (Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research) dataset from January 1999 to December 2019. CS-AMI-related age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs) per 100,000 US population were stratified by gender, race and ethnicity, geographic areas, and urbanicity. Nationwide annual trends were assessed as annual percent change (APC) and average APC with relative 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Between 1999 and 2019, CS-AMI was listed as the underlying cause of death in 209,642 patients, (AAMR of 3.01 per 100,000 people [95% CI 2.99 to 3.02]). AAMR from CS-AMI remained stable from 1999 to 2007 (APC −0.2%, [95% CI −2.0 to 0.5], p = 0.22) and then significantly increased (APC 3.1% [95% CI 2.6 to 3.6], p <0.0001), especially in male patients. Starting in 2009, the AAMR increase was more pronounced in those <65 years, Black Americans, and residents of rural areas. The higher AAMRs were clustered in the South (average APC 4.5%, [95% CI 4.4 to 4.6]) of the country. In conclusion, CS-AMI-related mortality in US patients increased from 2009 to 2019. Targeted health policy measures are needed to address the rising burden of CS-AMI in US subjects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18-25
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Volume200
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2023
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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