Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a transmembrane protein expressed on endothelial cells, white blood cells, smooth muscle cells and platelets. TREM-1 plays an important role in innate immunity. TREM-1 activation pathways are implicated both in sepsis and in non-infectious inflammatory conditions, including atherosclerosis. TREM-1 enhances the subendothelial lipid accumulation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix-degrading enzymes, thereby promoting inflammation and plaque destabilization. TREM-1 inhibitors attenuate the inflammatory process in the atherosclerotic plaque, leading to plaque stabilization. This review focuses on the role of TREM-1 in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and the effects of TREM-1 inhibition in the natural history of the disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)