Tumor microenvironment in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Implications in immunotherapy

Caitlyn Smith, Wei Zheng, Jixin Dong, Yaohong Wang, Jinping Lai, Xiuli Liu, Feng Yin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive and lethal cancers. Surgical resection is the only curable treatment option, but it is available for only a small fraction of patients at the time of diagnosis. With current therapeutic regimens, the average 5-year survival rate is less than 10% in pancreatic cancer patients. Immunotherapy has emerged as one of the most promising treatment options for multiple solid tumors of advanced stage. However, its clinical efficacy is suboptimal in most clinical trials on pancreatic cancer. Current studies have suggested that the tumor microenvironment is likely the underlying barrier affecting immunotherapy drug efficacy in pancreatic cancer. In this review, we discuss the role of the tumor microenvironment in pancreatic cancer and the latest advances in immunotherapy on pancreatic cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3297-3313
Number of pages17
JournalWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
Issue number27
StatePublished - Jul 21 2022


  • Chemotherapy
  • Clinical trial
  • Immunotherapy
  • Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
  • Treatment
  • Tumor microenvironment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


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