Twenty-four hour pharmacokinetic relationships for intravenous vancomycin and novel urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury in a rat model

Sean N. Avedissian, Gwendolyn M. Pais, J. Nicholas O'Donnell, Thomas P. Lodise, Jiajun Liu, Walter C. Prozialeck, Medha D. Joshi, Peter C. Lamar, Leighton Becher, Anil Gulati, William Hope, Marc H. Scheetz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVES: To identify the pharmacokinetic (PK) and toxicodynamic (TD) relationship for vancomycin-induced kidney injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received intravenous (iv) vancomycin. Doses ranging from 150 mg/kg/day to 400 mg/kg/day were administered as a single or twice-daily injection over 24 h (total protocol duration). Controls received iv saline. Plasma was sampled with up to eight samples in 24 h per rat. Twenty-four hour urine was collected and assayed for kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), osteopontin and clusterin. Vancomycin in plasma was quantified via LC-MS/MS. PK analyses were conducted using Pmetrics for R. PK exposures during the first 24 h (i.e. AUC0-24h, Cmax 0-24h and Cmin 0-24h) were calculated. PK/TD relationships were assessed with Spearman's rank coefficient (rs) and the best-fit mathematical model. RESULTS: PK/TD data were generated from 45 vancomycin-treated and 5 control rats. A two-compartment model fit the data well (Bayesian: observed versus predicted R2 = 0.97). Exposure-response relationships were found between AUC0-24h versus KIM-1 and osteopontin (R2 = 0.61 and 0.66) and Cmax 0-24h versus KIM-1 and osteopontin (R2 = 0.50 and 0.56) using a four-parameter Hill fit. Conversely, Cmin 0-24h was less predictive of KIM-1 and osteopontin (R2 = 0.46 and 0.53). A vancomycin AUC0-24h of 482.2 corresponded to a 90% of maximal rise in KIM-1. CONCLUSIONS: Vancomycin-induced kidney injury as defined by urinary biomarkers is driven by vancomycin AUC or Cmax rather than Cmin. Further, an identified PK/TD target AUC0-24h of 482.2 mg·h/L may have direct relevance to human outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2326-2334
Number of pages9
JournalThe Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2019
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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