Two pathways of costimulation through CD28

Jim Miller, Christina Baker, Kevin Cook, Beth Graf, Mariano Sanchez-Lockhart, Katherine Sharp, Xia Wang, Barbara Yang, Takeshi Yoshida

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


CD28 is recognized as the primary costimulatory molecule involved in the activation of naïve T cells. However, the biochemical signaling pathways that are activated by CD28 and how these pathways are integrated with TCR signaling are still not understood. We have recently shown that there are at least two independent activation pathways induced by CD28 costimulation. One is integrated with TCR signaling in the context of the immunological synapse and is mediated through transcriptional enhancement and the second is mediated through the induction of mRNA stability. Here, we review the immunological consequences and biochemical mechanisms associated with CD28 costimulation and discuss the major questions that need to be resolved to understand the molecular mechanisms that transduce CD28 costimulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)159-172
Number of pages14
JournalImmunologic Research
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - Dec 2009


  • Antigen presentation
  • CD28
  • Costimulation
  • Immunological synapse
  • MRNA stability
  • Signal transduction
  • T cells
  • Transcriptional regulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

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