Ultra high pressure water stream characterization and optimization

K. R. Grosskopf, Paul Oppenheim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Ultra-high pressure (UHP) technology has proven, to enhance the performance of firefighting equipment using water and aqueous film forming foam (AFFF). UHP systems are capable of producing small water droplets at high velocity. As droplet size is reduced, surface area relative to mass increases, improving heat transfer. Smaller droplets, however, experience greater drag, reducing throw distance. Findings indicate that on average, 150m/s exit plane velocities result in maximum, throw distances of between. 4,600-5,600 orifice diameters. Furthermore, exit plane velocities of 1.50m/s were found to produce 90-100μm droplets, sizes considered optimal for fire extinguishment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-21
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Applied Fire Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2006
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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