Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

127 Scopus citations


Urinary bladder carcinogenesis in rodents bears numerous similarities to the diseases in humans. In rats, the process progresses through the morphologic stages of simple hyperplasia, papillary and nodular hyperplasia, papilloma, noninvasive, and invasive carcinoma. In mice, the pathogenesis can be similar or can follow a sequence of marked dysplasia with or without hyperplasia, leading to carcinoma in situ and ultimately to high-grade invasive carcinoma. Although the papillary and nonpapillary diseases appear to be related in rodents and in humans, they are distinct morphologically, biologically, and molecularly. Numerous classes of genotoxic chemicals have been identified as bladder carcinogens in rodents, and some of these have also been identified as carcinogenic in humans, most notably, aromatic amines, nitrosamines, and cyclophosphamide. In contrast, nongenotoxic chemicals appear to be highly specific with respect to species, strain, diet, agent, dose, and mechanism. For some, it is unclear whether the results at high doses in rodents can be extrapolated to low doses or to humans, e.g., chemicals that cause bladder cancer only at high doses related to the formation of calculi. Numerous observations in rodents can assist in identifying possible mechanisms involved for these nongenotoxic chemicals and therefore can be important for a rational evaluation of human risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)121-127
Number of pages7
JournalToxicologic Pathology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1998


  • Bladder cancer
  • calculi
  • cell proliferation
  • genotoxic chemicals
  • hyperplasia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Toxicology
  • Cell Biology

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