Urothelial Carcinogenesis in the Urinary Bladder of Male Rats Treated with Muraglitazar, a PPARα/γ Agonist: Evidence for Urolithiasis as the Inciting Event in the Mode of Action

Mark A. Dominick, Melvin R. White, Thomas P. Sanderson, Terry Van Vleet, Samuel M. Cohen, Lora E. Arnold, Marty Cano, Sarah Tannehill-Gregg, Jeffrey D. Moehlenkamp, Crystal R. Waites, Beth E. Schilling

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84 Scopus citations

Abstract

Muraglitazar, a PPARα/γ agonist, dose-dependently increased urinary bladder tumors in male Harlan Sprague–Dawley (HSD) rats administered 5, 30, or 50 mg/kg/day for up to 2 years. To determine the mode of tumor development, male HSD rats were treated daily for up to 21 months at doses of 0, 1, or 50 mg/kg while being fed either a normal or 1% NH4Cl-acidified diet. Muraglitazar-associated, time-dependent changes in urine composition, urothelial mitogenesis and apoptosis, and urothelial morphology were assessed. In control and treated rats fed a normal diet, urine pH was generally ≥6.5, which facilitates formation of calcium- and magnesium-containing solids, particularly in the presence of other prolithogenic changes in rat urine. Urinary citrate, an inhibitor of lithogenesis, and soluble calcium concentrations were dose dependently decreased in association with increased calcium phosphate precipitate, crystals and/or microcalculi; magnesium ammonium phosphate crystals and aggregates; and calcium oxalate-containing thin, rod-like crystals. Morphologically, sustained urothelial cytotoxicity and proliferation with a ventral bladder predilection were noted in treated rats by month 1 and urinary carcinomas with a similar distribution occurred by month 9. Urothelial apoptotic rates were unaffected by muraglitazar treatment or diet. In muraglitazar-treated rats fed an acidified diet, urine pH was invariably < 6.5, which inhibited formation of calcium- and magnesium-containing solids. Moreover, dietary acidification prevented the urothelial cytotoxic, proliferative, and tumorigenic responses. Collectively, these data support an indirect pharmacologic mode of urinary bladder tumor development involving alterations in urine composition that predispose to urolithiasis and associated decreases in urine-soluble calcium concentrations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)903-920
Number of pages18
JournalToxicologic Pathology
Volume34
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2006

Keywords

  • Dual PPARα/γ agonist
  • carcinogenesis
  • hypocalciuria
  • urinary bladder
  • urolithiasis
  • urothelial

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Toxicology
  • Cell Biology

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    Dominick, M. A., White, M. R., Sanderson, T. P., Van Vleet, T., Cohen, S. M., Arnold, L. E., Cano, M., Tannehill-Gregg, S., Moehlenkamp, J. D., Waites, C. R., & Schilling, B. E. (2006). Urothelial Carcinogenesis in the Urinary Bladder of Male Rats Treated with Muraglitazar, a PPARα/γ Agonist: Evidence for Urolithiasis as the Inciting Event in the Mode of Action. Toxicologic Pathology, 34(7), 903-920. https://doi.org/10.1080/01926230601072327