Described is an efficient heterologous expression system for Sulfolobus solfataricus ADH-10 (Alcohol Dehydrogenase isozyme 10) and its use in the dynamic reductive kinetic resolution (DYRKR) of 2-arylpropanal (Profen-type) substrates. Importantly, among the 12 aldehydes tested, a general preference for the (S)-antipode was observed, with high ee's for substrates corresponding to the NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) naproxen, ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, and fenoprofen. To our knowledge, this is the first application of a dehydrogenase from this Sulfolobus hyperthermophile to asymmetric synthesis and the first example of a DYRKR with such an enzyme. The requisite aldehydes are generated by Buchwald-Hartwig-type Pd(0)-mediated α-arylation of tert-butyl propionate. This is followed by reduction to the aldehyde in one [lithium diisobutyl tert-butoxyaluminum hydride (LDBBA)] or two steps [LAH/Dess-Martin periodinane]. Treatment of the profenal substrates with SsADH in 5% EtOH/phosphate buffer, pH 9, with catalytic NADH at 80 °C leads to efficient DYRKR, with ee's exceeding 90% for 9 aryl side chains, including those of the aforementioned NSAIDs. An in silico model, consistent with the observed broad side chain tolerance, is presented. Importantly, the SsADH-10 enzyme could be conveniently recycled by exploiting the differential solubility of the organic substrate/product at 80 °C and at rt. Pleasingly, SsADH-10 could be taken through several thermal cycles, without erosion of ee, suggesting this as a generalizable approach to enzyme recycling for hyperthermophilic enzymes. Moreover, the robustness of this hyperthermophilic DH, in terms of both catalytic activity and stereochemical fidelity, speaks for greater examination of such archaeal enzymes in asymmetric synthesis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry