Study objective: To determine the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass with standard-dose epinephrine, high-dose epinephrine, and standard-dose epinephrine on perfusion pressures, myocardial blood flow, and resuscitation from post-countershock electromechanical dissociation. Design: Prospective, controlled laboratory investigation using a canine cardiac arrest model randomized to receive one of three resuscitation therapies. Interventions: After the production of post-countershock electromechanical dissociation, 25 animals received ten minutes of basic CPR and were randomized to receive cardiopulmonary bypass with standard-dose epinephrine, high-dose epinephrine, or standard-dose epinephrine. Measurements and main results: Myocardial blood flow was measured using a colored microsphere technique at baseline, during basic CPR, and after intervention. Immediate and two-hour resuscitation rates were determined for each group. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in eight of eight cardiopulmonary bypass with standard-dose epinephrine compared with four of eight high-dose epinephrine and three of eight standard-dose epinephrine animals (P < .04). One animal was resuscitated with CPR alone and was excluded. Survival to two hours was achieved in five of eight cardiopulmonary bypass with standard-dose epinephrine, four of eight high-dose epinephrine, and three of eight standard-dose epinephrine animals (NS). Coronary perfusion pressure increased significantly in the cardiopulmonary bypass with standard-dose epinephrine group when compared with the other groups (cardiopulmonary bypass with standard-dose epinephrine, 76±45 mm Hg; high-dose epinephrine, 24 ± 12 mm Hg; standard-dose epinephrine, 3 ±14 mm Hg; P < .005). Myocardial blood flow was higher in cardiopulmonary bypass with standard-dose epinephrine and high-dose epinephrine animals compared with standard-dose epinephrine animals but did not reach statistical significance. Cardiac output increased during cardiopulmonary bypass with standard-dose epinephrine (P = .001) and standard-dose epinephrine (NS) compared with basic CPR but decreased after epinephrine administration in the high-dose epinephrine group (NS). Conclusion: Resuscitation from electromechanical dissociation was improved with cardiopulmonary bypass and epinephrine compared with high-dose epinephrine or standard-dose epinephrine alone. However, there was no difference in survival between groups. Cardiopulmonary bypass with standard-dose epinephrine resulted in higher cardiac output, coronary perfusion pressure, and a trend toward higher myocardial blood flow. A short period of cardiopulmonary bypass with epinephrine after prolonged post-countershock electromechanical dissociation cardiac arrest can re-establish sufficient circulation to effect successful early resuscitation.
- cardiopulmonary bypass
- cardiopulmonary resuscitation
- electromechanical dissociation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Emergency Medicine