Use of gc × gc/tof-ms and lc/tof-ms for metabolomic analysis of hyalella azteca chronically exposed to atrazine and its primary metabolite, desethylatrazine

Kimberly J. Ralston-Hooper, Jiri Adamec, Amber Jannash, Robert Mollenhauer, Hugo Ochoa-Acuña, Maria S. Sepúlveda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Scopus citations


Atrazine is one of the most commonly detected contaminants in the U.S. Little information is available on one of atrazine's metabolites, desethylatrazine (DEA). Two-dimensional gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight- mass spectrometry were used to examine metabolite profiles of Hyalella azteca chronically exposed to 30μg/L atrazine and DEA. The majority of identified metabolites were by-products of β-oxidation of fatty acids suggesting possible disruption in energy metabolism. Eicosanoids increased in exposed females suggesting possible perturbations in neuropeptide hormonal systems. Overall, this research demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing metabolomic profiling of invertebrate species exposed to environmental contaminants as a way to determine mechanisms of toxicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)399-410
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Applied Toxicology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 1 2011



  • Atrazine
  • Desethylatrazine
  • Endocrine disruption
  • GC × GC/TOF-MS
  • Hormesis
  • Hyalella azteca
  • Invertebrates
  • Metabolomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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