Using place-based characteristics to inform FDA tobacco sales inspections: results from a multilevel propensity score model

Hongying Dai, Lisa Henriksen, Zheng Xu, Nirosha Rathnayake

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Conducting routine inspections for compliance with age-of-sale laws is essential to reducing underage access to tobacco. We seek to develop a multilevel propensity score model (PSM) to predict retail violation of sales to minors (RVSM). Methods The Food and Drug Administration compliance check of tobacco retailers with minor-involved inspections from 2015 to 2019 (n=683 741) was linked with multilevel data for demographics and policies. Generalised estimating equation was used to develop the PSM using 2015–2016 data to predict the 2017 RVSM. The prediction accuracy of the PSM was validated by contrasting PSM deciles against 2018–2019 actual violation data. Results In 2017, 44.3% of 26 150 zip codes with ≥1 tobacco retailer had 0 FDA underage sales inspections, 11.0% had 1 inspection, 13.5% had 2–3, 15.3% had 4–9, and 15.9% had 10 or more. The likelihood of having an RVSM in 2017 was higher in zip codes with a lower number of inspections (adjusted OR (aOR)=0.988, 95% CI (0.987 to 0.990)) and penalties (aOR=0.97, 95% CI (0.95 to 0.99)) and a higher number of violations (aOR=1.07, 95% CI (1.06 to 1.08)) in the previous 2 years. Urbanicity, socioeconomic status, smoking prevalence and tobacco control policies at multilevels also predicted retail violations. Prediction accuracy was validated with zip codes with the highest 10% of the PSM 3.4 times more likely to have retail violations in 2019 than zip codes in the bottom decile. Conclusion The multilevel PSM predicts the RVSM with a good rank order of retail violations. The model-based approach can be used to identify hot spots of retail violations and improve the sampling plan for future inspections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E148-E155
JournalTobacco control
Volume31
Issue numbere2
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Using place-based characteristics to inform FDA tobacco sales inspections: results from a multilevel propensity score model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this