We have devised and implemented a key technology, SpatioTemporal Adaptive-Resolution Encoding (STARE), in an array database management system, i.e. SciDB, to achieve unparalleled variety scaling for Big Earth Data, enabling rapid-response visual analytics. STARE not only serves as a unifying data representation homogenizing diverse varieties of Earth Science Datasets, but also supports spatiotemporal data placement alignment of these datasets to optimize a major class of Earth Science data analyses, i.e. those requiring spatiotemporal coincidence. Using STARE, we tailor a data partitioning and distribution strategy for the data access patterns of our scientific analysis, leading to optimal use of distributed resources. With STARE, rapid-response visual analytics are made possible through a high-level query interface, allowing geoscientists to perform data exploration visually, intuitively and interactively. We envision a system based on these innovations to relieve geoscientists of most laborious data management chores so that they may focus better on scientific issues and investigations. A significant boost in scientific productivity may thus be expected. We demonstrate these advantages with a prototypical system including comparisons to alternatives.