West Nile virus infection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

Mitchell V. Palmer, William C. Stoffregen, Douglas G. Rogers, Amir N. Hamir, Juergen A. Richt, Douglas D. Pedersen, W. Ray Waters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


West Nile virus (WNV) infection in 4 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) resulted in lymphohistiocytic encephalomyelitis within the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Immunohistochemistry revealed WNV antigen within neurons and among mononuclear cell infiltrates. These represent the first known cases of clinical WNV infection in Cervidae. Clinical signs and lesions were similar to those described in horses. Nucleotide sequence of a 768-bp region of the WNV E-glycoprotein gene revealed 1 nucleotide mutation, which resulted in a single amino acid substitution from a serine to a glycine (position 227 of E-glycoprotein) when compared with the prototype WNV-NY99 strain (isolated from Bronx zoo flamingo 382-99).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)219-222
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'West Nile virus infection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this