Participation of compatible living donors and recipients in kidney paired donation (KPD) could double the number of KPD transplants. We determined the willingness of previous directed donors and their recipients to participate in KPD and identified the association of various factors, including financial incentives, with willingness to participate. Methods Survey of previous directed living kidney donors and their recipients in a single Canadian center between 2001 and 2009. Results Among 207 of 222 eligible living donors contacted, 86 (42%) completed the anonymous survey: 93% (78/86) of donors indicated willingness to participate in KPD if this option had been provided at the time of donation. An increased willingness to participate was reported among the majority of respondents if reimbursements for lost wages and travel expenses were provided; however, cash payments between $5 000 and $50 000 had little impact on willingness. Willingness was also increased with an advantage to the recipient (younger donor or better human leukocyte antigen match), whereas delays beyond 3 months and donor travel were associated with reduced willingness to participate. Among 38 recipients approached during routine clinical follow-up visits over a 3-month period, 100% completed the survey, and 36 of 38 (92%) reported they would have been willing to participate in KPD. Conclusions Over 90% of directed donors and recipients were willing to participate in KPD. Reimbursement for the costs of participation and improved efficiency of KPD (i.e., eliminating travel and reducing transplant times), but not cash payments, may increase participation of compatible donors and recipients in KPD.
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